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Directive 2009/136/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 November 2009 amending Directive 2002/22/EC on universal service and users’ rights relating to electronic communications networks and services, Directive 2002/58/EC concerning the processing of personal data and the protection of privacy in the electronic communications sector and Regulation (EC) No 2006/2004 on cooperation between national authorities responsible for the enforcement of consumer protection laws (Text with EEA relevance) 

OJ L 337, 18.12.2009, p. 11–36 (BG, ES, CS, DA, DE, ET, EL, EN, FR, IT, LV, LT, HU, MT, NL, PL, PT, RO, SK, SL, FI, SV)

Special edition in Croatian: Chapter 13 Volume 052 P. 224 - 249

http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEX:32009L0136

http://ec.europa.eu/ipg/basics/legal/cookies/index_en.htm

Neuro Signature System

If you are a Government Security Agency contact us for a special Information Dossier at nss@axxonet.com

Applications

NSS and BEOS AutoIS (Automated Interview System) can be used to Screen interviewees for

 

  • Crime (Murders, Rape, Theft, Fraud)
  • Narcotics
  • Poaching
  • Radical training
  • Smuggling
  • Sensitive Posts
  • Illegal Immigration
  • Plans to overstay

 

 NSS-Logo-2

Neuro Signature System measures processes in the interviewee's brain to detect presence of Experiential Knowledge of an event.

Neuro Signature System used for “Brain Electrical Oscillations Signature” Profiling has proven itself in a number of criminal cases. NSS has helped investigators, providing them first hand information from the memory of a person to help understand if he or she was involved in a particular crime/incident, or if they were just witness to it.

BEOS is being used as an aid to Criminal Investigation in hundreds of cases (including murders, terrorism, fraud, poaching, theft), by the Police and the reports have been presented in Court as supporting documentation. Extensive ecological validation studies and laboratory studies have already been completed which have validated the usefulness of the test for forensic and intelligence applications.

The Government of India performed its own independent Validation study with over 110 subjects, and found the system provides  accuracy level of 95%

Overview

In recent years great importance has been given to forensic tools to aid criminal investigation. Any investigative technique being used needs to be fool proof, tamper proof, and with a sense of urgency needs to provide accurate results to aid investigations quickly.

Detection and Identification of information from suspects has become an important need in crime investigation. Neuro Signature System measures processes in the interviewees brain to detect presence of Experiential Knowledge of an event.

Neuro Signature System used for “Brain Electrical Oscillations Signature” Profiling has proven itself in a number of criminal cases in India.
“Brain Electrical Oscillations Signature” (B.E.O.S.) Profiling opens a new chapter in search of innovations for extraction of information from the brain-mind.

This is the first technique invented, which focuses on the presence of Experiential Knowledge acquired by a person, and differentiating experiential knowledge from conceptual knowledge.

The Interviewee is not presented with questions that need to be answered or responded to. The Interviewee remains silent during the BEOS test.

The technique is based on original finding at Axxonet that during awareness of past actions (autobiographical memory), the brain produces typical electrical oscillations, which form a 'Signature' of the awareness or process related to retrieval of experience.

Axxonet developed the system under license from Prof. C.R. Mukundan, who conceptualized and developed the electrophysiological algorithm of the relevant neural process. The technology development comprised of development of Probe Designing Methods, Equipments, Control programs, Signal processing and Analyses programs, requiring invention of new methods and techniques.

 

Test Duration & Setup

The average Test duration is between 30 to 45 minutes, and is completely Non Invasive. There are no questions asked, and the Suspect does not have to respond to any information presented. The Suspect wears a Sensor array cap on their head [Similar to a swimming cap] which detects their mental processes during the test.


Current Usage

NSS has helped investigators, providing them first hand information from the memory of a person to help understand if he or she was involved in a particular crime/incident, or if they were just witness to it. .

BEOS is being used as an aid to Criminal Investigation in hundreds of cases (including murders, terrorism, fraud, poaching, theft), by the Police and the reports have been presented in Court as supporting documentation.

NSS is being used in India and other countries. Axxonet is actively involved with Indian Law enforcement in analysis of various types of cases, and has an exclusive NSS Lab setup for various agencies to use.

Validation
Extensive ecological validation studies and laboratory studies have already been completed which have validated the usefulness of the test for forensic and intelligence applications.  

The Government of India has performed its own independent Validation study with over 110 subjects, and found the system provides a accuracy level of 95%.

Comparison to other techniques
NSS does not rely on the old P300 waveform technique which is a simple stimulus recognition test. To use P300 to detect presence of information would be akin to diagnose Malaria or Jaundice using a Thermometer.

The simplistic P300 waveform which is generated at about 300 milliseconds after the presentation of a stimulus to a subject, is only an indicator of registration of a stimulus by the brain, and cannot be used in complex criminal analysis scenarios, where memory and remembrance processes are analysed. P300 based simulation tests are routinely performed at the under grad and school level today, and any usage by justice or intelligence agencies should be validated first.

NSS is far superior to techniques depending on Autonomic measures like - GSR, ECG, Pulse, Blood Pressure, Respiration which can easily be controlled by a suspect.

It is not based on simple variances in such measures, or neural network comparisons with a databank, which can be manipulated easily by the interviewee.

Current Users
Hundreds of cases have been solved using NSS, and continue to be solved.

Government agencies using NSS currently are

  • Police Forces
  • Judicial System
  • Intelligence Agencies

About Brain Signature Profiling [ BEOS ]

“B.E.O.S.” refers to a signature extracted from the electrical oscillations of the brain of a person, obtained while presenting probes related to specific events in which the person is suspected to have participated. The signature represents the presence of electrical activation pattern indicating retrieval of Experiential Knowledge of the said participation. The signature is absent while the subject retrieves information, which one could have conceptually (from sources other than participation) acquired.

B.E.O.S is also called Brain-Mapping in some parts of the world which is a misnomer.

Neural processing / activation are different during retrieval of knowledge acquired through experience in comparison with retrieval of knowledge acquired through conceptual learning. Retrieval of Experiencing Knowledge may have components of sensory-motor mental imageries representing reality contacts and verifications, though the knowledge derived is only subjectively verified and interpreted.

Extensive research in Neuroscience has shown that the brain activation pattern is significantly different during ‘remembering’ and ‘knowing’. Remembrance is always that of past personal episodes which constitutes the experiences of the individual. On the other hand knowing represents retrieval from the knowledge bank of the brain used for recognition of the entities of world and their conceptualizations.

Forensic Tech2a

The technique has immense forensic and medical application as it can extract ‘signature’ related to specific experiences with personal significance, one has gone through in the past and hence one is bound to remember. These experiences may be related to personal participation in activities, which may include planning, discussions, and even strong intentions which served as motives for execution of specific actions. Generally one remembers only those experiences which have personal significance to the self. Emotions, gains, and such personal values attached to the participation render an event personally significant and retrievable.

An important feature of the test is that the subject is not presented with questions and need not answer or provide any response while listening to the probes.

“Neuro Signature System” represents the equipment designed and developed by Axxonet. It records scalp electrical activity from a person using multiple electrodes and the N.S.S. program extracts the signature, if present, when the subject silently listens to the probes. The probes are presented in auditory mode.

The Neuro Signature System carries out extensive analyses of the electrical oscillations for computing both frequency and time domain related changes induced and provoked by the probes. At the end of the automated analyses, the system prints out an interpreted report which tells the nature of involvement, if any, of the subject in the said activities probed by the test. Based on the probes presented, it can indicate if the subject took part in an activity, the specific role played by one, whether related to planning or execution. It can also help identify a person from a group who has performed a specific activity or determine the differential roles of the individuals tested.

Continuous research is in progress at Axxonet for better understanding and refining analysis methods for the detection of the various changes recorded during the presentation of the probes, their display, and their neurocognitive significances.

N.S.S. BEOS carries out the entire range of analyses and the interpretation of the analysed results automatically and prepares the Forensic Report of the suspect.

The test can be used as a powerful investigatory aid. The investigating agency has the duty to be confidential about the outcome revelations of the test, unless the same is otherwise revealed by material evidence and are presented in a court of law.